Once Upon A Time (2...
Shawn is trying to convince his friends of the magic words: 'once upon a time'. While playing in the playground, by saying the magic words, it begins to rain. However, Barney and the kids quickly realize that Carlos is using a water hose.
Once Upon a Time (2...
Going inside the classroom, Barney's friends are still unconvinced of the magic words. Stella the Storyteller visits; and with some help from Barney, they help teach the kids that the magical effect of 'once upon a time' is the ability to tell wondrous, fantastical stories. Stella tries to unplug her suitcase; when all of a sudden, the case begins unpacking all of her props. Seeing this as an opportunity to show the kids the magic of storytelling, Barney and Stella come up with ways for the group to act out three classic fairy tales: Rumpelstiltskin, Rapunzel, and Goldilocks and the Three Bears. Baby Bop joins the group to help tell the latter two fairy tales.
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In normal times, the water came to a horse's belly ... in dry times a man could jump across it. He maintained a private road to the ford and it became Lohman's Crossing Road. The ford was about halfway across our lake between the Lakeway Inn Boat Ramp and the east cove in Point Venture. On the Lakeway side, the road once ran from the lake to Highway 71. It ran behind the houses on 1001-2-3-5 and 7 Challenger. On the Point Venture side it still goes to FM 1435. When Travis County took over the road they built a small bridge.
Once upon a time, about a hundred years ago, the pioneer families were not the only people who lived in our part of the Hill Country. Cedar choppers earned a living by making charcoal. The put pieces of cedar in a pit, covered it with dirt to keep out the air, and burned it for several days. They also cut cypress logs from the Pedernales River into shingles. Deer were plentiful. .. even then ... and were hunted for food and skins.
Osmosis studies (orange boxes in Figure 2) had an ambiguous relationship with the early understanding of cell membranes. From the earliest studies, water movement across semipermeable membranes was explicitly related to the volume changes of the cell. Osmosis can hardly be understood without the concept of membrane semipermeability and, as a result, osmotic studies have been relevant to theoretically acknowledge the cell membranes as selective barriers. Nevertheless, the first studies using artificial membranes were difficult to compare to the complexity of natural cell membranes and the analogy between the two types of membranes remained obscure for a long time.
In 1936, Danielli, who was probably the most influential author in the field at the time, discussed a complete catalog of possible membrane structures in addition to his paucimolecular model . He excluded all membrane models that were much thicker than 8 nm because he thought it was the most plausible cell membrane thickness. He classified the membrane models in three types: continuous lipid membranes, mosaic membranes and lipo-protein membranes (Figure 9). In the first type, he imagined all the possible combinations of lipid monolayers and bilayers coated with proteins. He concluded that a lipid bilayer with the polar parts of the lipids in the exterior would be the most stable structure because it maximized the contact of the hydrophilic lipid parts with water. He assumed that the proteins were subject to the same amphipatic constraints as lipids but in their own layers. In the mosaic-like models, he considered different distributions of proteins and lipids, but he ruled all of them out because he assumed that lateral interactions between lipid hydrophobic parts and proteins would not have been stable. He also considered that if the lipid bilayer had not been covered by proteins, it would not have been solid enough to provide a reliable impermeable barrier to resist to cell deformation. Finally, he did not go into the detail of the lipoprotein membranes because little was known about such kind of molecules. Concerning ion permeability, he acknowledged the three popular possibilities of his time: pores, simple diffusion and the existence of some kind of transporter in the membrane .
In summary, the 1950s and 1960s were full of discoveries seemingly tangential but actually tightly related to cell membranes. These debates concerned the cell permeability, the formation of gradients or the connection with metabolism. The sound transformation that took place in these fields during those years improved knowledge of many membrane components, especially proteins. The pumps, transporters, respiratory chains and ATPases studied in these lines of research required that membrane proteins had access to both sides of the membrane. Although the existence of transmembrane proteins was far from being totally accepted, these hypotheses certainly impacted contemporary ideas on membrane structure at a time not yet dominated by the fluid mosaic model. 041b061a72